OK, yes, I know there are probably already a gazillion web pages on the ‘net explaining exactly how to do this, but I got caught out by a silly gotcha when I tried to do this a couple of days ago, so I thought I’d post a note.
Firstly, X is not exactly a secure protocol, nor is it easy to filter at NAT firewalls, so the ability to tunnel it over ssh is hugely welcome. In fact, ssh can be used to tunnel practically any other protocol you care to name, so it should be your first port of call should you wish to connect to a remote system using an insecure protocol. (I use it to wrap rsync for example).
I don’t run X on my VMs (there is no need, they don’t run desktop software) and I had not previously seen the need to run X based graphical programs on those servers. However, a couple of days ago I thought it would be really useful to run etherape on one particular remote server so that I could watch the traffic patterns. Normally I use iptraf (which is ncurses based) when I want to monitor network traffic in real time, but etherape is pretty cool and gives a nice graphical view of your network connections. But it runs on an X based gui.
So. I changed the remote server’s sshd_config to enable X forwarding (“X11Forwarding no” becomes “X11Forwarding yes”) and restarted sshd. On my desktop I similarly changed my local ssh_config file to allow X forwarding (“ForwardX11 no” becomes “ForwardX11 yes”) to obviate the need to use the -X switch on the command line. I then installed etherape on the remote server and fired it up only to get the message “Error: no display specified”. Sure enough “echo $DISPLAY” showed nothing. But I had thought (and everything I had read confirmed) that ssh should take care of setting the appropriate display when X11 forwarding was set.
So I then tried setting a display manually (export DISPLAY=localhost:10.0 on the remote server) and then got the response “Error: cannot open display: localhost:10.0”. So, still no deal. I spent some time scratching my head (and reading man pages) and sent off a query to my local Linux User group in parallel asking for advice. They were gentle with me.
The first, and rapid, response, said:
On the server:
sudo apt-get install xauth
Then disconnect and reconnect the client.
Jobs a good un.
Thank you Brett.
So the moral is, make sure that you have X authorisation working properly on the remote system (check for the existence of $HOME/.Xauthority) if you experience the same symptoms I did.